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Many hazards were involved in the operation of seagoing bulk carriers. The safety of seagoing bulk carriers is the subject of meticulous plan. This site is a quick reference to the international shipping industry and offers guidance and details on loading and discharging bulk cargo kinds. These restrictions are established by the classification societies. It is essential to reduce the chance of stressing structure of the ship and to follow all safety precautions for secure sea passage. The detail pages on our website cover various bulk carrier related topics which could be beneficial to those working onboard and those working on shore in the terminal.
General characteristics of seagoing bulk ships
Bulk carriers are vessels with a single deck that are equipped with top-side tanks and side tanks. They are made to handle bulk cargo that is a single commodity. Any material that is not gas or liquid but is solid bulk cargo, that is any substance made up of a mix of granules and/or mixtures, or any other material that has an uniform composition. It can be put directly into the cargo compartment of a vessel and does not require any storage. These dry cargoes can include bulk grain, sugar and ores. Bulk carrier, in its broadest meaning can refer to any vessel which are designed specifically to transport bulk cargo such as liquid cargo or solid cargo. Tankers are also included. In common usage, however bulk carriers are utilized for vessels designed for transporting bulk solid cargos. This includes grain and similar agricultural products and minerals such as coal, iron, ore, and stone. Peruse this bulkers blog for more.
What Exactly Is A Bulk Carrier? The Following Are The Major Characteristics Of Bulk Carriers:
"A ship which is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk, including such types as ore carriers and combination carriers"
Carrying capacity ranges between 3,000 and 300,000 tonnes
Average speed of 12-15 knots
-Single deck ships, ie no tweendecks
Carriers of small to medium sizes (carrying up to 40,000 tonnes) usually have cargo handling gear. Larger vessels are, however, equipped with docks for loading and unloading.
The cargo hold is usually spacious, and free of obstructions. They also have large hatch sizes that allow for ease of loading and unloading cargoes
The bulk carriers typically have one cargo hold dedicated as an ballast hold. This can be used for ballast voyages to improve stability. For partially ballasting there are two or three additional holds might be allowed, however they only at port.
They are equipped with single pull, hydraulic or stacking (piggy- back) type steel hatch covers
Ballast tanks of different types
Sloping topside wing tanks
Bottom of wing slopes downwards tanks
Double bottom tanks
Ballasts for peak and post peak water tanks
What is a solid bulk cargo? Any material that is not liquid or gas, consisting of a mixture of granules, particles or any larger pieces of material, generally uniform in composition, and loaded straight into the cargo space without any intermediary type of confinement. It is essential to ensure that all cargoes are ready to be loaded, regardless of whether they are "clean" or "dirty", and that there is no contamination. Surveyors are often required to inspect the space and determine if it's suitable to be loaded. To avoid contamination, it is vital that any leftovers left by previous cargoes be eliminated. The damage to bulk cargoes is mostly caused by water. Therefore it is essential that not only the holdings be dry for cargo to be able to enter, but hatch covers must be watertight or, in the event of necessity closed to stop the ingress of water. All fittings (ladders or pipe guards, as well as bilge covers) inside the container should be examined. It is important to inspect every fitting in the hold for cargo (ladders and pipe guards, etc.) and ensure they are properly installed. If they're not properly fitted, these pieces of equipment could cause serious damages to conveyor systems which could lead to delays. Check out this ore carrier blog for more.
Bulk Carrier or Bulker? A vessel designed to carry dry cargo, loaded into the vessel, with no container other than the ship,s boundaries, as distinguished from the bulk carrier that is liquid or tanker. A conventional bulk carrier is constructed with only a single deck, one skin, double bottom, topside and side tank hoppers. tanks within cargo spaces. Bulk carriers are able to carry any type of bulk cargo that ranges from heavy ore to light grains, up to the maximum weight. It isn't as easy or simple as you think.
Gearless Bulk Carrier
Certain bulk cargoes can contain hazardous substances or may undergo modifications during transport. The ship may be damaged by improper loading e.g. It is possible for a ship to bow if not loaded properly. The stress can have life threatening results when the weather is rough at sea. Last cargoes can be negatively impacted by the residues of earlier cargoes. Some bulk cargoes may also suffer water damage. cement power. It is difficult to verify true weights or quantities of cargoes loaded or discharged. These elements can have severe consequences on how bulk cargoes are transported safely. Discharging bulk cargo using? Bulk cargoes are prone to create a cone when they are loaded onto conveyor belts. The angle that is created by the cone is referred to as the `angle of repose'. It varies with each cargo. Iron ore-based cargoes can form a steeply angled cone. However, cargoes that flow freely may create a cone with a shallow angle. A cargo with low angles or repose can shift during its passage. Certain cargoes require bulldozers to distribute the load across the storage areas. Dry-bulk carriers generally use shoreside facilities to load cargo or discharge Some bulk carriers provide self-unloading options using conveyors under the cargo hold or cranes on deck.